Impact of nanotechnology on proteomics

Impact of nanotechnology on proteomics
The impact of nanotechnology in proteomics has lead to the development of a new field known as nanoproteomics. Analysing the structure of a protein and also its functions is the next step after genomics but the task was no easy to perform either precisely or easily; it was more than tedious. The main objective is to separate the protein in order to study its structure. For separation of proteins (breaking peptide bonds between amino acids), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate PAGE is used to separate the proteins according to size and Fibrin Zymography for the detection of enzyme activity. But this new field of science called nanoproteomics would allow the identification of low-abundance proteins in the samples through the techniques that are only based on nanoparticles and nanoscale devices.

Important components of nanoproteomics:
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Quantum dots
  • Nanowires
  • Magnetic nanoparticles for protein separation, etc.

  • Magnetic nanoparticles are most efficient because they are fast scalable and easily separated and automated, thus reducing the pre-treatment and chromatographic techniques.

    Full length of many of the human proteins is not known. They can be obtained through carbon nanotubes. For example, insulin-growth factor binding proteins give a full length 3D-structure with the help of carbon nanotubes which are very much essential for cancer call imaging.

    Proteins must travel to proper places for their proper activity which can be guided by the quantum dots, which are nothing but the fluorescent nanocrystals that can be made to glow brightly. But this research is yet to be tested and declared. However, this dot can help us follow the path of the proteins and prevent them from reaching unfavourable and wrong places to avoid any defects.

    There are many other nano products that are now ruling the proteomics world. Proteomics plays a very important role in healthcare. Any defects in its structure and function can lead to many abnormalities and disorders. This can be prevented by proper assessments, which are made possible with the help of nanoproteomics.

    Advantages
  • Methods of proteomics, such as their biocompatibility, specificity reproducibility and robustness have been improved
  • Individual protein manipulation
  • Ease of mass transfer by providing large surface area
  • Low sample consumption
  • Fast in action
  • Results are obtained soon
  • Enhances easy separation of proteins, etc.

  • This nanotechnology has proved to be a really wonderful field with many advantages. It can even detect the low abundance proteins and a solitary molecule with the proteins.

    Disadvantages
  • Not economical
  • Ethical and privacy problems
  • Safety concerns still exist with the use of nanoparticles
  • Magnetic nanoparticles tend to aggregate thus causing a failure to complete reaction
  • Nanoparticles in gel form also precipitate

  • For every positive thing in the world, there are negatives along with it. But nano has only few which can be rectified to use for the future. This nanoproteomics can be implemented to identify the post-translational modification of proteins and determine their structure and functions completely because only proteomics can give the full length of protein structures and only nano can help them in succeeding in a short period of time.


    How to cite this article:
    Raagasweatha RK. Impact of nanotechnology on proteomics. BioLim O-Media. 13 July, 2016. 4(7).
    Available from: http://www.biolim.com/read/BOMA0126.